Immersion Cooling: Sink Your Servers in Liquid
(Series 2 of 3)

18 April 2024

Sink or Sync? You read it right, SINK.

Next question. Servers and liquid don’t go well together? Think again.

In an era where technology evolves at breakneck speed, the demand for effective cooling solutions to sustain optimal performance has surged.


Did you know?

Only half (52%) of data centres’ electricity bills is actually used by the IT equipment. The bulk of the remaining half (38%) is used by cooling systems, with the 10% left for the remaining equipment, such as backup power supply like the Uninterruptible Power Supply System, Electrical Power Distribution, etc (Nadjahi, Louahlia, & Lemasson, 2018; Kuncoro, et al., 2019; Pambudi, et al., 2022).


Among the forefront innovations, Immersion Cooling stands out, reshaping the landscape of heat management in modern operations. This blog post is poised to navigate through the intricacies of Immersion Cooling, elucidating its principles, merits, industry adoption, and tangible applications through insightful case studies.


Understanding Immersion Cooling

In the realm of cooling technology, Immersion Cooling represents a groundbreaking departure from conventional methods. Traditionally, cooling systems relied on circulating air to dissipate heat generated by IT hardware. On the other hand, Immersion Cooling involves submerging IT hardware, such as servers, within a non-conductive coolant, effectively dissipating heat generated during operation.


This innovative technique minimises thermal resistance by directly immersing components in the coolant, thereby enhancing cooling efficiency and maintaining optimal operating temperatures. Furthermore, the study by (Kuncoro, et al., 2019) emphasises the role of Immersion Cooling in mitigating hotspots within data centres, thus promoting uniform temperature distribution and reducing the risk of thermal-induced hardware failures (Pambudi, et al., 2022).


By immersing hardware in this manner, Immersion Cooling eliminates the need for bulky air conditioning units and intricate air circulation pathways, streamlining cooling infrastructure and minimising energy consumption. Furthermore, the non-conductive properties of dielectric fluids ensure the safety of hardware components, mitigating the risk of electrical faults and enhancing operational reliability (Pambudi, et al., 2022; Pambudi, Yusuf, & Sarifudin, 2022).




How It Works

Immersion Cooling operates on the principle of heat transfer through convection, utilising either single-phase or two-phase cooling mechanisms.


Single-Phase Immersion Cooling

In single-phase immersion cooling, IT hardware components are submerged in a dielectric fluid, such as mineral oil or synthetic coolant. This fluid efficiently absorbs heat generated by the hardware, which is then circulated through a cooling system to dissipate the heat. Single-phase cooling is characterised by its simplicity and ease of implementation, making it an attractive option for various applications.


Two-Phase Immersion Cooling

Two-phase immersion cooling, as outlined in the research by Haghshenas et al., (2023), involves a more complex heat transfer process. In this method, the dielectric fluid undergoes a phase change from liquid to vapor as it absorbs heat from the hardware components. The vapor then condenses on a heat exchanger, releasing the absorbed heat and returning to its liquid state, completing the cycle. Two-phase cooling offers enhanced heat dissipation capabilities compared to single-phase cooling, making it well-suited for high-performance computing applications where stringent thermal management is required.


Pros and Cons



Significantly higher energy efficiency Initial capital investment
Potential cost savings Need for specialised equipment and expertise
Does not require as much space as traditional air cooling Longer implementation period (especially for retrofits)
Longer lifespan compared to traditional air cooling Fluid leaks (rare with proper systems)
Low maintenance cost Fluid quality needs to be managed


The long-term benefits of Immersion Cooling outweigh the upfront costs, making it a compelling choice for businesses seeking to optimise their cooling infrastructure (Haghshenas, Setz, Blosch, & Aiello, 2023; Nadjahi, Louahlia, & Lemasson, 2018; Pambudi, et al., 2022; Pambudi, Yusuf, & Sarifudin, 2022).


According to studies by Matsuoka et al. (2017), An et al. (2018), Eiland et al. (2014), Chandrasekaran et al. (2017), and Shah (2018), immersion-cooled data centres have a nearly perfect Power Usage Efficiency (PUE) of 1.02–1.04, meaning that they use 10–50% less energy for the same amount of computational load than their air-cooled counterparts.


Industry Trends and Insights

The adoption of Immersion Cooling within the industry reflects a broader shift towards sustainable and energy-efficient data centre solutions. According to the study by Pambudi, et al. (2022), rising concerns over energy consumption and environmental impact have propelled the exploration of innovative cooling technologies like Immersion Cooling. Furthermore, the research highlights the increasing demand for high-density computing solutions, driven by the proliferation of data-intensive applications such as artificial intelligence and machine learning.


Additionally, the study conducted by Nadjahi, Louahlia, & Lemasson (2018) underscores the growing significance of Immersion Cooling in addressing the thermal challenges associated with modern data centres. As data centre operators seek to optimise energy consumption and reduce operational costs, Immersion Cooling emerges as a viable solution to achieve these objectives. The study also highlights the potential for Immersion Cooling to facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources, further enhancing the sustainability of data centre operations.


Market Adoption

Various industries are embracing Immersion Cooling to address their cooling needs, with data centres emerging as a primary adopter of this technology. According to the research by Haghshenas, Setz, Blosch, & Aiello (2023), the exponential growth of data traffic and the increasing demand for cloud services have fuelled the expansion of data centre infrastructure worldwide. As data centres strive to accommodate higher server densities and manage escalating heat loads, Immersion Cooling offers a compelling solution to enhance cooling efficiency and reduce energy consumption.


Furthermore, the studies by Haghshenas, Setz, Blosch, & Aiello (2023) and Sun, Han, & Li (2022) highlights the adoption of Immersion Cooling in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, where thermal management is critical to maintaining system performance. HPC applications such as scientific simulations and computational modelling require robust cooling solutions to prevent thermal-induced performance degradation. Immersion Cooling provides an effective means of addressing these challenges, enabling HPC facilities to achieve optimal performance and reliability.




Case Studies

Advanced cooling systems cater to a diverse range of industries and applications in Southeast Asia, addressing the unique cooling requirements of various sectors. Let’s explore how different industries leverage advanced cooling technologies to enhance operational efficiency and reliability:


Data Centres:

Data centres serve as the nerve centre of modern businesses, managing vast volumes of data and digital operations. In Southeast Asia, facilities like Equinix SG4 and STT Tai Seng 1 in Singapore exemplify the adoption of advanced cooling solutions to meet the region’s growing demand for cloud and digital services. Equinix’s SG4 data centre leverages liquid cooling solutions to enhance energy efficiency and cooling performance, ensuring uninterrupted operation and optimal performance for cloud services. Similarly, STT Tai Seng 1 utilises immersion cooling technology to optimise energy use and cooling efficiency, catering to the high-density requirements of modern data centre operations.


High-Performance Computing (HPC) Facilities:

HPC facilities play a critical role in research, scientific, and government sectors, facilitating complex calculations, simulations, and data processing tasks. In Southeast Asia, institutions like the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Fusionex Data Centre in Malaysia rely on advanced cooling technologies to support their HPC infrastructure. NUS utilises liquid cooling solutions to meet the demanding computational requirements of research and scientific applications. Similarly, Fusionex employs immersion cooling technology to ensure optimal performance and reliability for its HPC infrastructure, enabling big data analytics and machine learning applications.


Telecommunications and Network Infrastructure:

The telecommunications industry depends on continuous uptime and data throughput to maintain network reliability and efficiency. In Southeast Asia, companies like Telekom Malaysia and PLDT in the Philippines invest in cooling systems to ensure optimal performance for their network infrastructure. Telekom Malaysia’s data centre utilises liquid cooling solutions to enhance energy efficiency and performance for its telecommunications network. Conversely, PLDT relies on air cooling systems to maintain the reliability of its network infrastructure, ensuring uninterrupted connectivity for its customers.


Industrial and Manufacturing Processes:

Industries such as semiconductor manufacturing, automotive, and aerospace require precise temperature control to maintain product quality and consistency. In Southeast Asia, companies like Infineon Technologies in Malaysia and Rolls-Royce in Singapore leverage advanced cooling technologies to support their manufacturing processes. Infineon Technologies utilises liquid cooling solutions to maintain precise temperatures and ensure the reliability of its semiconductor production processes. Similarly, Rolls-Royce relies on immersion cooling technology to manage the thermal requirements of critical components during manufacturing and testing, ensuring the integrity and performance of aerospace systems.



In today’s rapidly evolving industries, advanced cooling systems have become indispensable for optimising operations and ensuring reliability. From data centres to telecommunications networks, from high-performance computing facilities to industrial processes, the adoption of innovative cooling technologies is paramount.


At Power Partners Group, we are committed to spearheading the adoption of advanced cooling solutions. With our cutting-edge technologies and expertise, we empower businesses to stay ahead of the curve, optimise their operations, and unlock new opportunities for growth.


Stay Tuned – Series 3 of 3

Keep an eye out for the next chapter in our series, where we will delve further into the realm of power solutions. In Series 3, we will shine a spotlight on gensets, exploring their versatility, applications, and the latest innovations in backup power technology. Get ready to discover how gensets play a pivotal role in safeguarding businesses and communities during critical times. Stay tuned as we continue to bring you insightful content and empower you with the latest advancements in power solutions from Power Partners Group.


In the meantime, check out our Advanced Cooling Solutions for more details.

Learn More




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Kuncoro, I. W., Pambudi, N. A., Biddinika, M. K., Widiastuti, I., Hijriawan, M., & Wibowo, K. M. (2019). Immersion cooling as the next technology for data centre cooling: A review. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1402(4). doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1402/4/044057

Nadjahi, C., Louahlia, H., & Lemasson, S. (2018). A review of thermal management and innovative cooling strategies for data centre. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 19, 14 – 28. doi:10.1016/j.suscom.2018.05.002

Pambudi, N. A., Sarifudin, A., Firdaus, R. A., Ulfa, D. K., Gandidi, I. M., & Romadhon, R. (2022). The immersion cooling technology: Current and future development in energy saving. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 9509 – 9527. doi:10.1016/j.aej.2022.02.059

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Sun, X., Han, Z., & Li, X. (2022). Simulation study on cooling effect of two-phase liquid-immersion cabinet in data centre. Applied Thermal Engineering, 207. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2022.118142